Why is Africa underdeveloped?

There are many theories trying to explain why the African continent is the global basket case. While the per capita income of the rest of the world in 2000 was US$ 8800, in Africa it was US$ 1800, nowhere else is life expectancy so low and illiteracy rates so high. And that although since the early 1950s $US 568 billion in aid has been poured into the continent.

In a new article (via 3 quarks daily – one of my favourite general interest blogs), the economist Nathan Nunn argues, that slavery is the main culprit. “Without the slave trades, 72% of Africa’s income gap with the rest of the world would not exist today.” Slavery affected those regions most developed between 1400 and 1900, which are today the poorest in Africa. Slavery, not only the transatlantic variety but also the earlier inter-African one, lead to political instability, weakened states, political and ethnic fragmentation and a deterioration of legal institutions.

Now, „One Big Thing“ theories are always suspicious. So let me throw in another (of the many) explanations. Many anthropologists will point to socio-cultural factors as being of great importance for African underdevelopment. One of the most important seems to be the egalitarian ethos of many traditional African societies. Jackson, a young South African man I got to know in Johannesburg earlier this year, had wanted to upgrade his family house back in the village by replacing the mud floor with concrete. But even this minimal attempt at differentiating his household from the others had spurred so much envy and suspicion that he eventually gave up on the project. Private wealth accumulation is seen as antisocial behaviour threatening to undermine the dense reciprocal relationships between villagers, who help each other out in times of need. The fear is that once some villagers are wealthy enough to do without these insurance networks, they might refuse to help needy others and thus destroy the fundamental sense of security in the community.

Successful people are constantly pressured to share their wealth with family and friends. If they don’t, they easily are branded as witches or have other envious people bewitching them. If you want to know more about this subject (and understand German!) read my old brand eins column or this article about witchcraft and the Swiss anthropologist David Signer (via antropologi). For a highly informative account of the role of witchcraft in Cameroon read Peter Geschieres The Modernity of Witchcraft.

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89 Responses to “Why is Africa underdeveloped?”


  1. 1 Musa November 18, 2009 at 8:07 am

    Africa’s economy would never be so downtroden if it was not the process of slavery and slave trade. Those Europeans used Africans for bunches of food production in their own countries. They captured only the economically active populations knowing that those young children and elders left behind will never survive on their own. I wonder if without us as Africans the Europeans were going to have their economy in the position it is in right now. It is painful to see and know that Europeans are very rich because of the resources of Africa and the labor of African people. One has to consider that Africans were very much independet until these people came here. They even divided Africa into pieces. There were no boundaries within the African continent. Now, when a person wants to go to Zambia for example, one has to produce some legal documents. Poor Africa, what did you do that you are in this situation. When one traces your history, one finds out that you were very rich. The intruders have intruded and you were very much overt for intrution. Now the intruders have taken all your fortune and left you in desperation. I pray the God feels for you. Ooh Poor Africa! what did you do?

  2. 2 Abraham Khah August 12, 2010 at 9:23 am

    Their are many theories to why Africa is underdeveloped and one can not stick to only a single reason,slavery colonialism,neo-colonialism and just to mention but a few,are all responsible for Africas underdevelopment

  3. 3 murshed Osmman Mohammed November 8, 2010 at 12:24 pm

    I would like more information about why Africa is underdevelopment

  4. 4 Akintunde-hammed-opeyemi November 27, 2010 at 8:24 am

    I see no reason why africans see white as there second God most expecialy nigerians?despite all there wicked attitude to us in past.it so painfull that they make us believe that are good.my concern is that we don’t have good leader and follower.are struggle.enough of all these africans.let’s gather and fight our leaders we need economy stability.why must we have food and die of hungry.we need fight to create fears in the mind of our leader.after many years of surfering from white people.why must we need to surfer from our people again

  5. 5 ufuoma gbudje December 6, 2010 at 5:45 pm

    The average african is constantly faced with the problem of culture disorientation.The major problem of the african is the problem of identity of culture.The average african behaves like someone suffering from senile amnesia.He does not understand where his coming from,where he is at present and where is going.

  6. 7 Solomon Benedict Andrew(CEO Arise Africa) January 17, 2011 at 10:18 am

    Africa’s problem has just a solution which is let us get back to the founder of the world. cos He knows best our plight!

  7. 8 Solomon Benedict Andrew(CEO Arise Africa) January 17, 2011 at 10:21 am

    If visually a good number of african can embrace the truth about the golden laws of the creator & forsake their gods!

  8. 9 allowhite January 26, 2011 at 4:05 pm

    Those of us that have left Africa and have adapted other cultures, are very aware of what is wrong with Africa. The only way we can fix Africa is to step up and return with the knowledge we have acquired. Step up and fight corruption, step up and lead, and only then will things change. Let us not abandon Africa, she needs us.it only takes a brave few to change the course of the world. without the works of Martin Luther King Jr and Nelson Mandela where would we be now?

  9. 10 Helena malle May 26, 2011 at 12:20 pm

    We have to find a solution to make Africa developed continent,one of solution is to stand on our own feet and not depend on Aids from developed countries.

  10. 11 chepkati noah February 22, 2012 at 11:25 am

    Unless stable reforms in governance are made, Africa will remain underdeveloped forever.

  11. 12 olekamma chibuike March 4, 2012 at 10:09 pm

    i hate it when people heep the problem of africa on the colonial masters,few years ago i was watching tv then i saw a deutch bank advertisment in a wall street journal that proclaimed:ideas are capital and the rest is just money.i was struck by the simplicity of such an eloquent idea,then i started imagining what such power meant for africa,if idea is capital why is africa investing on things than on information?investing more on the military than on education.africa’s primary strategy for poverty alleviation is to sick for debt relieve,foreign assistance and investment from western nations. The potential for progress and poverty alleviation lies on the capital generated from the power generated from the power within our minds not from our ability to pick minerals from the ground or sick debt relieve and investment from western nations.the future of africa is in the hands of africans.

  12. 14 Prince Emma Okot(NIMULE SOUTH SUDAN) March 24, 2012 at 7:34 pm

    fellow African lets stop standing on the complaint counter it will never solve our problem,pliz let embrace work ,keep time ,be optimistic and vigillant to combat our biggest pandemic under development and poverty and watch out for neo-colonial tendencies it the worst state of colonialism that will leave African in a parmanet island if under development and poverty

  13. 15 Mathias GOUBA March 27, 2012 at 9:52 pm

    A tree cannot grow on the roots of another one . So Africa should go back to his owns roots , values and tradition . And Africa should be to Africans

  14. 16 Qinisela Que Ncube March 29, 2012 at 10:00 am

    at these point and level where corruption is the agenda of the day, it is hard to point out that colonisation is the cause of underdevelopment .Africa’s problems are mainly caused by the greedy nature that we have adopted not from colonial states but amongst ourselves, the development of Africa lies mainly in AGRICULTURE, it is pathetic that due to modernisation, technology Africans have abandoned the agricultural sector. nations budget allocations clearly limits possibilities of agric re-boost, studying the history of African agriculture one will agree with me that, currently there is injustice being practised on lands. Africans lets not abandon and abuse these lands which sustained our fore fathers. agriculture is our pride.

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  19. 21 manzani mareru April 30, 2013 at 5:59 pm

    Its a pity and a slap on each of us (Africans) that we are the main cause of our under-development

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  22. 25 form six HGL students at KILAKALA secondary school September 20, 2013 at 6:27 am

    there are many reasons to why Africa was and still underdeveloped,as referring back to historical phenomenon thus European intrusion {colonialism],power mongering of African rulers,poverty,diseases,Neo-colonialism poor technological base,poor implementation of African economic policies and strategies, and on top of all; laziness of African themselves results into extreme underdevelopment of their own motherland.

  23. 26 the dream catchers September 20, 2013 at 6:38 am

    underdevelopment in Africa is accelerated by African leaders who are power mongers.For instance a leader having many posts like MP,are also ministers and they are the heads of high committees;this brings out mass unemployment to Africans who are educated hence extreme poverty.

  24. 27 naburo alice October 13, 2013 at 9:43 am

    we are responsible for our own problems. so we as africans should come together to solve our own problems.

  25. 28 Simbarashe Chifunda October 27, 2013 at 12:02 pm

    Africans should salvage from what has been left of their colonial past,which means they should assume responsibility for the much needed re-engagement of African economies rather than relentlessly nailing on the extent of their previous abuses,such approach is counter productive.

  26. 29 Random SouthAmerican December 3, 2013 at 4:43 am

    I’m South American. We have many things in common with Africa: our population is also concentrated around tropical regions, our landscapes and natural resources are very similar to those from Africa (mining, agriculture, desert, forests, jungle, etc.).
    We also had a few rich and developed indigenous civilizations, with a strong egalitarian culture, and also decimated by the Europeans (diseases and slavery) for over 500 years.

    The point is, we are way more developed and politically stable than Africa, with some cases like Chile or Argentina showing a per capita GDP of almost US$20,000, or countries like Brazil, the #6 world economy, with a large black/mulatto population, and almost the same climate than the Republic of Congo.

    I think the factor is the european influence, which was the base of the economical development. Africa, on the other hand, is still dangerous for europeans: tropical diseases, political instability, racist policies (post-apartheid anti-white South Africa, for example) that scares away the foreign investment.

    Africa sure has a great potential for development and success, but it will be challenging to grow up without some help from the West or Asia.

  27. 30 Victoria henshaw January 14, 2014 at 11:21 am

    Africans r jst being over dependent bcos they need help frm d whites rather dan developin…over dependence makes one totally under-developed

  28. 31 Victoria henshaw January 14, 2014 at 11:22 am

    Africans r jst being over dependent bcos they need help frm d whites rather dan developin…over dependence makes one totally under-developed…we should b able to fight

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